PT. Jawa Power owns a 1,220 MW coal fired power station located at the Paiton power generation complex in East Java, Indonesia. Jawa Power is one of the largest IPPs in Indonesia with a 30-year power purchase agreement with PT. PLN (Persero), the state-owned electric utility company. The power station supplies electricity into the Java-Bali 500 kV grid, which is owned and operated by PLN.
The power station began construction in 1996 and entered commercial operation in 2000.
Jawa Power is owned by Siemens of Germany (50 %), YTL Power International and Marubeni Corporation (35%), and PT. Bumipertiwi Tatapradipta of Indonesia (15%). The design, Engineering, Procurement, Construction (EPC) and commissioning start-up of the power station was undertaken by a consortium led by Siemens. YTL Power International's wholly-owned subsidiary, PT YTL Jawa Timur, is the O&M operator for Jawa Power.
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Paiton Power Generation Complex is located 140 km east of Surabaya, in the district of Paiton Probolinggo regency, East Java.
The complex is located on the coast and designed for an ultimate coal-fired capacity of 4,000 MW. The site has been designed to accommodate eight (8) power generation units.
Units 1 & 2 (2x400 MW) are owned by PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali, Units 5 & 6 (2x610 MW) are owned by PT. Jawa Power, and Units 7 & 8 (2x610 MW) are owned by PT. Paiton Energy. The area for Units 3 & 4 is now occupied by a single unit 800 MW supercritical power station owned by Paiton Energy.
The power station is a two (2) unit coal fired steam plant with each unit having a net electrical output of 610 MW. The power generation of the power station is based on the following major systems :
Water under high pressure enters the steam generator (3) and is heated in a preheating section. The preheated water is further heated in a steam generator section. In this section, water is circulated through the heating sections and a large vessel (steam drum) where steam is separated from water (19). The steam is heated further in a superheating section. The steam enters the steam turbine at a temperature of 538 °C and at a pressure of 167 bar.
In order to provide a closed cycle, exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in the condenser (14) and cooled by sea water from the Java Sea. The seawater is cleaned by the cooling water cleaning system (20) and circulated by cooling water pumps (21) through the condenser to the seal pit (22) before it is returned to the sea through the outlet culvert (23). The condensed steam then flows through some preheaters (16) and is conveyed by the feedwater pump (18) through further preheaters (16) to the steam generator.
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The combination of pollution abatement technologies applied at this plant coupled with the carefully selected range of domestic coals ensure the plant's compliance with the more stringent Indonesian legislative limits on nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx) and particulate emissions which came into force in the year 2000.
The Indonesian sub-bituminous coals contracted for supply to Paiton II are characterised by high volatility and low nitrogen content. These two characteristics ensure excellent 'low NOx' combustion performance is achievable from the multi-layer overfire system installed. NOx emissions are maintained below 370mg/Nm3.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are a function of the sulphur content of the fuel since, effectively, all the sulphur contained in the coal is emitted in the flue gas, with the exception of a very small proportion which is retained in the ash. For each tonne of sulphur contained in the fuel, two tonnes of SO2 are formed. SO2 may be removed before the flue gas is discharged to the atmosphere by a process called Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD).
The seawater washing process represents a relatively recent development of FGD technology, combining the benefits of high sulphur removal efficiency at lower costs than more conventional limestone-gypsum based alternatives. The process relies on the natural alkalinity of raw seawater to remove the SO2 and Sulfur trioxide (SO3) from the gases, producing predominantly sulphite ions in solution. Air passed through the liquor subsequently serves to oxidise the sulphites to the sulphate form. Seawater is then added downstream of the absorber to increase the pH of the solution prior to discharge to the sea. The process does not require the quarrying, supply and transport of a solid reagent or the transport and disposal of a by-product.
The seawater washing FGD plant installed at Paiton II is one of the largest in the world. The FGD plant is designed to remove approximately 94% of the SO2 contained within the flue gases, ensuring the ability to meet the EPC contract specified limits, equivalent to 130mg/Nm3, when firing coals containing up to 0.69% sulphur.
Unless controlled, a significant proportion of the inert components of coal would be discharged to the atmosphere as particulate. There are a number of processes applicable to utility plant for limiting particulate emissions to very low levels prior to discharge of the flue-gas to the atmosphere. Of these, Electrostatic Precipitation (ESP) offers competitive advantages through life cost, high reliability, low pressure drop and high removal efficiency and represents the largest share of the utility market.
In the electrostatic precipitation process the dust laden gases are passed between collection plates and discharge electrodes. The discharge electrodes are centred between adjacent plates and provide a negative charge to the surrounding dust particles. The negatively charged dust particles are then collected on the positively earthed collector plates. The dust collected on the plates is periodically dislodged with the assistance of a rapping system and collected in hoppers below the plates.
The electrostatic precipitators installed at Paiton II have a design dust removal efficiency of approximately 99.5%, sufficient to ensure that dust emissions are maintained below 50mg/Nm3 even when firing the highest ash content coals.
The table below compares the Indonesian emissions standards for coal-fired plants with the Paiton II power plant environmental performance.
|Emissions||Indonesian Standards Since Year 2000||
Power Station Specification
|NOx||850 mg/Nm3||370 mg/Nm3||-56%|
|SOx||750 mg/Nm3||130 mg/Nm3||-83%|
|Dust||150 mg/Nm3||50 mg/Nm3||-67%|
PROPER is an environmental performance rating program organised by the Indonesian Ministry of Living Environment (KLH) which is aimed at improving compliance and awareness of companies in environmental management. The mechanism of PROPER is to distribute information regarding levels of environmental compliance and performance of companies to society and stakeholders (public information disclosure).
There are five (5) rating categories under PROPER, namely: Black, Red, Blue, Green and Gold with Gold being the highest award. Red and Black Ratings are given to companies which do not comply with the prevailing environmental laws and legislation. Green and Gold Ratings are awarded to companies which are fully compliant with the applicable laws and legislation, and also demonstrate their commitment to community development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
In 2012, Jawa Power received a Green Rating for the seventh times in a row and remains the only coal-fired power station in Indonesia which is classified under the Green Rating.
Jawa Power is aware of the importance of sustaining the surrounding community. We therefore place priority on developing the education sector, empowering the community and improving health and the quality of life.
In line with those principles, Jawa Power founded two schools in the Probolinggo regency, East Java. The Bhakti Pertiwi junior high and Tunas Luhur senior high school were established in 2003 and 2006 respectively, as part of our commitment to nurture future generations. Jawa Power also involves in establishment of cooperatives to empower local people in developing their own small business. Development of alternative energy is also a main focus in Jawa Power's efforts to improve the community quality of life. The Company's support on community development activities is made through Yayasan Bakti Energi.
Jawa Power aims to improve its environmental performance by promoting social responsibility and development programs to the community surrounding the project area.
The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities are focused on Education Quality Improvement, Community Empowerment and Health & Environment Improvement through the development of alternative energy.
Education Quality Improvement
The survey carried out in the early days of Jawa Power operation reveals that the community expected improvement in educational facilities. This is why the community development efforts have been concentrated in education so that more children can receive formal education. As an early step, the Company supported renovation of school buildings within the Paiton sub-regency, conducted trainings for the teachers and provided scholarships for students from less fortunate families.
In 2003, Jawa Power in cooperation with the community founded SMP Bhakti Pertiwi (Junior High School), the first full day school in Paiton. There were only 12 students in the first year, but number of students had been increasing every year since then, especially after the school has received “A” accreditation from the Indonesian Ministry of Education. Now the school is among the top ten ranks in East Java in graduation marks.
In 2006, Jawa Power founded SMA Tunas Luhur (Senior High School) so that SMP Bhakti Pertiwi graduates could continue their study. The SMA has also received “A” accreditation and many of its graduates are now studying at well respected universities in Surabaya and Malang. The SMA also received Adiwiyata Award from Ministry of Living Environment in 2012. This award is a recognition for schools with good environmental management.
In establishment of the two schools, Jawa Power has the support from the Government of Probolinggo Regency and always maintains close coordination with its Educational Agency (Dinas Pendidikan) in all activities carried out by the schools.
Jawa Power in cooperation with community in Bhinor village founded KSU (Cooperative) Bhinor Jaya Abadi in 2005 . The cooperative currently has 200 members and provides assistance in the form of loans and coaching to the communities to run their small businesses. There are various businesses currently being run by the communities such as handcrafting and fisheries. To improve the credentials of the cooperative, Jawa Power also hires the cooperative as contractor to provide gardening and cleaning services at the power plant. The cooperative is now able to compete with others to get similar contracts from other power plants in Paiton.
In addition, Jawa Power is currently providing quidance and support to wood crafters at Selobanteng village in business development and establishment of a cooperative.
Development of Alternative Energy
Jawa Power is also focusing on development of alternative energy in order to improve the environment and health of the community. Most of the community members own cows. The biological waste from the cows can be put into a process to generate methane or biogas. The biogas can be utilized for cooking and fueling a lamp. This way, the community can save money normally allocated for buying kerosene or elpiji (liquid petroleum gas). Jawa Power has built 40 biogas units which are situated in 3 different villages. The plan is, by end of 2013, there will be 70 biogas units in operation within the community.
Microhydro is also one of the alternative sources of energy which Jawa Power is presently developing, in addition to the biogas. Microhydro has been chosen because of its low investment cost and the continously available river flow. A microhydro pilot project has been constructed and handed over to the community in Kedung Sumur village at the end of August 2012. Its power capacity of 1,900 watts is sufficient to light up 15 to 20 houses in the village. 6 more microhydro unit, each with similar capacity, have been completed and are now producing electricity for the surrounding villages. With this program, Jawa Power aims to support the community which have no access to electricity from the national grid. The Company plans to build 3 more microhydro units within 2013.
The development and construction of microhydro plants are done by Jawa Power together with its plant operator, YTL Jawa Timur. The local community is participating by supplying construction materials, such as sand and bricks, whilst the Government of Probolinggo Regency constructed the outlet canal.
Revegetation of Paiton Coastal Lines
Jawa Power is also participating in mangrove and beach pine planting activity. This is in line with the initiatives to revegetate the Paiton coastal lines by the Government of Probolinggo and Ministry of Environment. The Company has planted 5 thousands mangroves and 4 thousands beach pines (casuarina equisetifolia).